LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES (PSUs)
At present, 7 nos. of opencast and 3 nos. of underground coal mines are in operation. Coal mining in Talcher dates back to the nineteen, twenties & thirties when the underground mines were privately operated by BN Railways, MSM Railways, Villiers Ltd. etc. before being taken over by the National Coal Development Corporation in 1956. The concept of opencast coal mining came in 1961 when South Balanda project took shape. Nandira under ground mine was opened in 1962, followed by Jagannath OCP in 1972. Central Coalfields Ltd. , a subsidiary of Coal India Ltd. took over control of all Coal mines in 1975 after nationalization. Bharatpur OCP commenced operation in 1985. In 1986 all the mines came under Southeastern Coal fields Ltd. Other opencast projects were opened one by one from 1990 onwards. Mahanadi coal fields Ltd. was created in 1992 having jurisdiction over Talcher & Ib valley coal fields.
With underground mining gradually becoming uneconomical & less productive, opencast activities grew for shallow but thick workable coal seams albeit of poorer quality. Phenomenal rise in production, use of heavy sophisticated machineries, growing demand for thermal power grade coal compensated for the decline in quality.
Opencast mines use shovel-dumper combination or dragline. Of late, use of surface miners have become popular which do not require blasting and ensures uninterrupted mining even if nearby population have not been shifted.
Underground mines are worked by bore and pillar method followed by depillaring. For roof stability, hydraulic stowing, roof stitching roof bolting etc. are done.
Coal produced are evacuated for sale as run-off-mine and after processing in the coal handling plants. Loading is done directly from the bunkers of C.H.Ps, through chutes or by pay loaders. The existing modes of transport are rail, rail-cum-in land shipment, MGR and belt conveyors.
LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OFF-TAKE GROWTH AND REVENUE ACCRUING THEREOF
The level of production prior to 1956 was only 0.4-0.5 Million tonnes which has attained a stage of about 36.5 M. tones at present.
The only fireclay mine located at Telisinga remains inoperative for most of the time.
It may be seen that the level of production has increased from 15.5 M.T. to 36.52 M.T. in the last decade and the corresponding revenue has increased by a staggering 400%. Phenomenal rise in mining and allied activities have generated prodigious employment opportunities in the region. Mega coal based industries like power plants of NTPC, NALCO have come up with present operational level of 1960 MW and 840 MW respectively. The capacity is likely to expand manifold in the years to come. One heavy water plant, one coal washery are also in operation. Prospects of a few more mega and a number of ancillary industries are bright. Proliferation in mining and industrial activities is bound to have impact on the ambient ecology and environment. A lot of measures are being taken for its protection vis-à-vis insurance of sustainable development. Yet the regional environment management plan needs to be more realistic and pragmatic so that the good will of the people affected is not lost and the economy of the State and the Nation as a whole flourish in a congenial atmosphere.
Various public sector undertakings & their ancillary industries have contributed enormously to the growth & prosperity of the district. There was hardly any industry in the district before the public sector undertakings were set up.
Public Sector undertakings
Large Scale Industries
National Aluminium Co.( NALCO), Mahanandi Coal Fields limited (MCL) and National Thermal Power Corporation( NTPC) are the three major Central PSUs functioning in this district. After continuous operation for almost two decades one such major P.S.U. i.e Fertilizer Corporation of India unit at Talcher has been closed on 31.03.1999
National Aluminium Company Limited (Nalco) is considered to be a turning point in the history of Indian Aluminium Industry. In a major leap forward, Nalco has not only addressed itself to the country’s need for self-sufficiency in aluminium, but also given the country the technological edge in producing this strategic metal on the best of world standards. Nalco was incorporated in 1981, in the Public Sector, following a major investment decision of Govt. of India to exploit a part of the large deposits of bauxite, discovered in the east coast in the State of Orissa. Alumina Pechiney of France, a world leader in the field, provided the technology and the basic engineering for its Bauxite Mine, Alumina Refinary and Smelter. To -day, as a Star Trading House and an ISO- 9001 and 14001 Company, Nalco has emerged as the largest integrated bauxite- alumina-aluminium complex in Asia, enabling India to witness a quantum jump in alumina and aluminium production.
SPECTRUM OF OPERATION
On Panchpatmali Hills in Koraput District of Orissa, a fully mechanized opencast mine of 24 lakh TPY capacity is under operation since 1985, serving feedstock to Alumina Refinery located in the foothills. The capacity has now been expanded to 48 lakh TPY.
Located in the picturesque valley of Damanjodi, operating since 1986 with capacity of 8 lakh TPY. The capacity is now expanded to 15.75 lakh TPY. Three production streams each of 5.25 lakh TPY based on Bayer’s process with atmospheric digestion and 3X18.5 MW co-generation of power from process steam are the main systems of this large refinery.
2.30 lakh TPY aluminium smelter located at Angul is based on energy efficient, state of the art technology is in operation since 1987. The capacity is being expanded to 3,45,000 TPY. Three pot lines of 1.15 lakh TPY capacity based on 180 KA Cell Technology from Aluminium Pechiney, France with large Carbon Plants for anode production and large metal casting facilities are the main systems of this giant aluminium smelting plant. At present 600 pots are already in operation for aluminium metal production. In near future 120 new pots will be put to operation.
Captive Power Plant
Close to the Aluminium Smelter, a captive power plant of 840 MW(7X120) capacity has been established to feed power to the Smelter. The capacity is being expanded to 960 MW(8X120). Coal fired thermal power plant with captive rail system for transportation of coal from Mahanandi Coal Fields( Talcher coal fields) is main feature of this plant.
On the inner harbor of Visakhapatnam Port in the Bay of Bengal, NALCO has mechanized storage and ship handling facilities for export of Aluminium and import of Caustic Soda.
Nalco has 6661 employees on roll (1609 executives & 5052 non executives). 3927 persons have been deployed in Angul section (Smelter & CPP).
PROFILE OF TALCHER COALFIELD
Talcher coalfield, located in the district of Angul of Orissa State, is one of the major coalfields containing huge reserves of power grade non-coking coal. The total area of the coalfield is 1860 sq.Kms. where as potential area is 1580 sq.km. The total geological reserve is 36868.12 million tonnes, which constitutes 18.7% of the country’s total reserve.
The main pit head customers are TTPS(NTPC)NTPC Kaniha, NALCO and private washeries. The other major customers are APGENCO, VIJAYAWADA TPS, VISHAKAPATNAM STEEL PLANT, MUDANUR POWER PLANT, RTPP, TNEB RAICHUR TPS, KPCL, HINDUSTAN NEWS PRINT LTD. etc. of South India. Approximately 12.0 million tones is being consumed by pithead customers of the state. MCL contributed Rs.25, 849.00 lakhs to public exchequer in terms royalty, Stowing Excise Duty, CST, Orissa Sales Tax, Entry Tax etc. during 2001-2002.
At present there are 7 nos. of opencast mines and 3 nos. of underground mines in operation with a manpower of 10,220.
NAME OF THE COAL MINES
B. Under Ground Mines
1. Central hospital.
2. Central Excv. Workshop.
3. Power supply scheme (Phase-I)
4. Integrated telecommunication system
5. Water supply scheme at Talcher (Phase-I)
Central workshop of Talcher coalfield has been awarded ISO 9002 in 1999-2000.
ENVIRONMENT, ECOLOGY & AFFORESTATION
Advance Environmental Management Plan for Talcher coalfield has been prepared by the Expert Group appointed by Govt. of India. Besides, all the mines have their individual environmental management plans.
Afforestation drive in our mines is continuing vigorously. Till 2002-2003, 3297758 saplings of 150 varieties have been planted. Plantation of medicinal plants has been completed over overburden dump of Ananta OCP covering an area of 6.0 Ha.
The findings of the Orissa Remote Sensing Application Centre from satellite imagery show that the vegetation cover over Talcher coalfield has increased perceptibly over the recent years as a result of extensive afforestation carried out by MCL.
Various steps have been taken to check air pollution and water pollution. Regular monitoring of air, water, noise and soil is being carried out. For vibration due to blasting studies are being made by CMPDI and controlled blasting is followed to contain the vibration within the limit. Surface miners have been introduced in the mines which is a new technology by which the drilling , blasting and crushing is completely eliminated, thereby reduced the air pollution and blast vibration and occurrence of fire on coal faces.
Commensurate with the expansion programmes, due emphasis has been given to welfare measures, in order to improve the quality of life of the employees. The management has launched a lot of welfare measures from the very beginning. Major thrust has been given to housing, water supply, educational facilities, medical facilities recreation, sports etc.
TALCHER SUPER THERMAL POWER PROJECT, KANIHA
The project/ station is located near Kaniha in Talcher Tahasil. Sprawling over an area of around 3700 Ac., the project is situated in the confluence of river Brahmani & its two tributaries namely Tikira & Singharajora.
A magnificent sleeping image of Lord Vishnu, 42 feet long and 8 feet wide is located within the plant area.
Government of India accorded final approval for the project in November, 1988.The then Prime Minister late Rajiv Gandhi laid the foundation stone of the project in June 1989.
Coal is transported to this power station from the Talcher coal fields (Lingaraj mines) through a 39 Kms. MGR (Merry Go Round) railway transportation system.
The remaining three units are slated to be commissioned by 2005-2006.
The power station has functioned with utmost efficiency since its inception.
Stage-I Ash Pond consists of two lagoons and one over flow lagoon, form where the water is being re-circulated to the main plant. As lagoon-I of Stage-I is totally filled up, Ash dyke raising work is in progress, which is likely to be completed by September,03. After completion of Ash Dyke raising work in Lagoon-I, Lagoon-II raising work will be taken up. For stage-II, there is a separate Ash Dyke consisting of inner and outer lagoons and also one over-flow lagoon. The Ash Dyke has been taken into service during Unit-III. Commissioning.
Raw water pump houses for both stage-I & stage-II have been constructed for drawing water from Samal Barrage. Raw water requirement is only for make up water purpose as the plant deploys a closed loop circulation system.
Environment & Pollution control measures
· Ash water re-circulation system commissioned on 29.10.98
· Sewage treatment plant commissioned on 24.03.99.
· Effluent treatment plant commissioned on 01.04.00.
· Work of ecological impact monitoring using remote sensing data by M/S NRSA, Hyderabad is completed.
· 3 Nos. ash brick plants, each having capacity of 8000 to 10000 bricks per shift are commissioned.
· ISO 14001 certification obtained.
· Vermi-Composting of township solid waste is under implementation through department of Environmental Sciences, Sambalpur University.
· On-line stack monitoring equipment for SOX and NOX and OPACITY meter for SPM are under operation.
· Solid Waste control measures
- Utilisation of ash for Asbestos & Brick manufacturing as well as land filling and ash dyke raising.
· Green Belt
- RS. 146 lakhs deposited with forest department towards compensatory afforestation.
- Development of green belt around plant area.
TALCHER THERMAL POWER STATION(TTPS)
· Talcher Thermal Power Station (TTPS) is located near Talcher Town.
· Water is drawn from Brahmani River flowing at a distance of 7.5 Km from the plant. The station is primarily linked to the Jagannath mines of Mahanadi Coal fields limited which is about 8 KM from the Power Station & the coal is fed through a 7.6 KM single belt conveyor system.
· TTPS, with an installed capacity of 460 MW was built in two stages. The Stage-I, having installed capacity of 250 MW and comprising of four units of 62.5 MW each, was set up by Government of Orissa under the US Aid Programme during sixties. These four units were commissioned during 1967 through 1969. The Stage-II units of 220 MW (2 X 110 MW) were commissioned during 1982 through 1983. Subsequently the Stage-I units were de-rated by CEA to 60 MW (from 62.5 MW) in 1991 and as such the capacity of the plant is now 460 MW (4X60 MW +2 X 110 MW).
2.0 TAKEN OVER BY NTPC
· Talcher Thermal Power Station was transferred to NTPC on 3rd June, 1995 with an objective to improve its performance using NTPC’s technical and managerial expertise.
3.0 PLANT CONDITIONS AT THE TIME OF TAKE OVER
· At the time of take over the station was running at about 20% Plant Load Factor.
· The annual PLF of this plant had never exceeded 36% in last 20 years of take over.
· The Stage-I units ( 4 X 60 MW) were in a very bad shape and only one unit ( Unit-3) was in operation.
· Many critical equipments such as CW pumps, Boiler feed pumps, River water pumps, Compressors, Mills, Crusher etc. were not available due to aging, lack of spares and inadequate maintenance.
· To add the plant problems, the environment pollution was of great concern. Stack emission was very high as compared to the statutory permissible limits.
· The Ash pond was full to the brim and ash slurry was flowing directly into the nearby Nandira River.
4.0 ACTIONS TAKEN AFTER TAKE OVER
· NTPC chalked out a two pronged strategy for plant performance improvement. In the first part of the strategy the balance 3 units of 60 MW each were restored by conducting mini-overhauls and refurnishing critical equipments so as to meet the PPA targets of initial years.
· In the second strategy, a detailed renovation and modernization plan for the Units has been formulated and these are under implementation to improve the performance level further.
5.0 RENOVATION & MODERNISATION WORKS
· R&M of SG and TG of 60 MW Units.
· Construction of Ash Dykes which are in use now. Additional 290 acres of land is under acquisition for construction of new Ash Dyke to meet future requirement.
· Commissioning of Sewage Treatment Plant in township for re-using ash water from ash ponds.
· Commissioning of Sewage Treatment Plant in township for re-using the sewerage water for horticultural works.
· Retrofitting of additional ESPs to the existing ones which has brought down the stack emission to well within the limit prescribed by Pollution Control Board.
· Installation of Dry Ash Collection System.
· About 10,000 fly ash bricks per day being manufactured using three numbers automatic brick manufacturing machines. Also fly ash is being supplied to asbestos and cement manufacturing industries.
· Massive afforestation has been taken up in and around Talcher Thermal and more than 2.00 lakh trees planted till March,03.
· Peripheral development works worth more than Rs. 2.00 crore have been completed.
6.0 PLANT PERFORMANCE
· The overall impact of these measures have improved the performance parameters and quality of life in township taking care of the environment and surrounding villages. The station PLF has improved from 20 % at the time of take over to about 60 % now.
· TTPS is dedicated to the State of Orissa and is committed to supply sustainable power, powering Orissa’s Growth.
Small Scale Industries
The small scale industries sector has grown steadily over the years and presently occupies an important place in the economy.
The locational advantages, forest, mineral & agricultural resources, patronage of public sector undertakings & incentives declared by Government from time to time have given a boost to development of SSI Sector in the district. 2293 no. of SSIs have been set up in this district since inception. Out of these 1140 no. of units have been set up during the last 10 years with an investment of Rs. 3277.41 lakhs generating employment of 4199 persons.
Creation of District Industrial Center ( DIC)
Impetus to SSI sector was provided in the industrial policy statement of 1977, which stressed upon wider dispersal of cottage and small industries in the rural areas & small towns. The concept of District Industries Centre ( DICs) was also mooted during 1978 so as to provide services to small industries under one roof. D.I.C. is the pivotal agency at the district level under Industries Department of Government of Orissa to look after the industries sector and to monitor and implement programmes related to industries, handicrafts, cottage industries, village industries and self employment programmes. District industries center, Angul started functioning independently from Ist January, 2000 in Angul district after being separated from D.I.C. ,Dhenkanal .This office grants registration to small scale industries and as a promotional agency plays an important role to facilitate necessary infrastructure and other supports . So far 500 no. of SSIs have been permanently registered in D.I.C.,Angul.
Address of DIC, Angul
District Industries Centre (D.I.C.)
Industrial Estates/ Areas
The estates are well equipped with power, water, road, sanitation and suitable for small scale industries.
The PSUs play a major role in promotion of small scale industries as ancillary units to cater to their needs. NALCO, MCL and NTPC declare their anciallary policy from time to time. So far 7 SSI units of this district have been registered as ancillary units with MCL and 6 nos. with NALCO. The PSUs should play a more active role in this regard.
Down Stream Industries
Some small scale industries have been promoted using end products and by-products of NALCO & MCL known as down stream industries. Utilising the aluminium ingots, bars, billets, wire rods of NALCO, 4 nos. of down stream industries have been set up. Aluminium cable manufacturing units and utensil manufacturing units are under this category. Fly ash brick manufacturing units are also being promoted using fly ash , the polluting waste of power plants of NALCO(CPP) & NTPC.
Major SSIs set up
Most of the small scale sector industries functioning in the district are engineering units, rice mills, hotels, fly ash bricks, stone crushers, service units, alum, bleaching, bread & bakery, tyre rethreading, floor mills, spices grinding etc. Many rice huller, chuda mills, oil expellers, C.B. bricks , K.B. bricks & spices grinding units. have been set up in rural area to cater the need of rural mass.
Industrial Policy Resolution
Industrial policy resolutions have been announced by Govt. of India & Govt. of Orissa from time to time to promote industrialisation . Many incentives relating to financial assistance, infrastructure development, tax exemptions and deferment, investment subsidies have been provided to the industries and thus healthy industrial climate has been created.
The recent I.P.R. 2001 has been announced by Govt. of Orissa on 03.12.2001. The major features of this I.P.R. are :
· Creation of SHILPA SATHI Cell in the Directorate of Industries and DICs for tiny & small units as contact point for interaction with various agencies & authorities.
· Creation of SILPA JYOTI in IPICOL for medium & large projects.
· Introduction of LAND BANK scheme in potential locations to earmark land for industries.
· Establishment of clusters for SSIs & Artisans.
Artisans of Angul district are practicing different crafts like Dhokra casting, terra cotta, wood carving, art textiles, soft toys etc. A survey has been conducted during the year, 2000. In this district 7422 nos. of artisans have been identified under handicraft sector. Some clusters have been developed for Dhokra casting and Brass & Bell metal at Tangiri of Chhendipada Block, Natada of Kishorenagar Block and Tubey of Angul Block. Traditional Bell metal items i.e Mana & Jagara of this district have found place in all handicraft centers and museums of India. 08 nos. of cooperative societies have been registered in handicraft sector.
Rehabilitation of handicraft artisans ( RHA)
This is a scheme announced by Govt. of Orissa for rehabilitation of handicraft artisans. There is provision of margin money of 25% limiting to Rs.5,000/- for each handicraft artisan who is availing financial assistance from any Bank. This is provided as a grant. So far 23 nos. of artisans have been assisted under the scheme.
Khadi & Village Industries.
Rural artisan base of the district is well set. With the help of Orissa Khadi & Village Industry Board, the artisans in pottery, carpentry, blacksmithy, stone crushing, brick making spices grinding, [paddy processing, beedi making, khali stitching , bamboo basket making have been assisted. Presently 09 nos. of cooperative societies are active in this sector.
Gramodyog Rojgar Yojana (REGP) is a scheme of KVIC which aims at employment generation in rural areas through village industries. So far 130 nos. of village industries have set up in this district with investment of 108.60 lakhs providing employment to 1890 persons.
P.M.R.Y. ( Prime Ministers Rojgar Yojana)
P.M.R.Y. scheme has been successfully implemented in the district. So far 1428 no. of educated youth have been assisted to set up their business/ service/ industrial ventures.
The scheme is being monitored by D.I.C. & District P.M.R.Y. committee under the Chairmanship of Collector, Angul.
Trend of Industries:
The locational advantages and availability of coal invites entrepreneurs for setting up sponge iron factories, coal washeries , coal calcinations plants, fly ash bricks industries, foundry & forging units etc. There is scope for development of Agrobased Industries and Food processing industries in the district. There is feasibility for setting an engineering complex to cater the needs of PSUs functioning in the district.
Industries in pipe line.
Two nos. of sponge iron factories are in pipe line. One 100 TPD plant is under implementation at Mukundpur near Angul Town and another 500 TPD plant is coming up shortly at Pallahara Block. Both are in large and medium scale sector. Two nos. of coal washeries are in commissioning stage at Talcher area in SSI sector. To meet the requirements of MCL and NTPC, one casting unit is also under implementation at Talcher area.
The Talcher Angul belt is the one of the major industrial mining complexes of the country. It provides a good scope for SSIs. There is a good potential for value addition in agriculture & mining sectors. The existing industries should be equipped with modern technologies to produce quality goods matching to the requirement of PSUs. With effective planning to utilize the resources available and with the introduction of technology this sector can develop in a big way.
PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS OF P.S.Us
The P.S.Us like Nalco & MCL earmark 0.5% to 1% of their net profit for development of periphery. The fund is spent on the following nature of works.
01. Construction of roads & culverts.
02. Construction of school & college buildings.
03. Drinking water supply.
04. Improvement of hospitals & provision of health care.
05. Construction of community centers.
06. Renovation of tanks.
07. Provision of streetlight.
08. Construction of sports stadium.
09. Other miscellaneous work.
The gallery of Angul stadium has been constructed with financial support of NALCO. A pediatric & maternity ward has been constructed at District Headquarters Hospital under peripheral development programme. In addition to the above NALCO has also provided fund to the tune of Rs.528.00 lakhs for permanent water supply through pipeline in eleven villages in its periphery. NALCO has also agreed to provide fund for permanent water supply through pipeline in another twenty-six villages in its periphery.
A stadium & a community hall ( Praja Mandal Bhavan) have been constructed by MCL in Talcher town.
NTPC has also taken up various works such as construction of school buildings & community centers, installation of hand pumps, construction of roads & culverts etc. in its periphery.